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CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

 

 

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid technique that can be used if someone is not breathing properly or if their heart has stopped.

Chest compressions and rescue breaths keep blood and oxygen circulating in the body.

If someone is not breathing normally and is not moving or responding to you after an incident, call 999 for an ambulance. Then, if you can, start CPR straight away.

 

Hands-only CPR

If you have not been trained in CPR or are worried about giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to a stranger, you can do chest compression-only (or hands-only) CPR.

To carry out a chest compression:

  • Place the heel of your hand on the breastbone at the centre of the person’s chest. Place your other hand on top of your first hand and interlock your fingers.
  • Position yourself with your shoulders above your hands.
  • Using your body weight (not just your arms), press straight down by 5–6cm on their chest.
  • Repeat this until an ambulance arrives.

Try to perform chest compressions at 100-120 chest compressions a minute.

When you call for an ambulance, telephone systems now exist that can give basic life-saving instructions, including advice on CPR. These are now common and are easily accessible with mobile phones.

 

Vinnie Jones: Hard and Fast - hands-only CPR

 

Video © and produced by the British Heart Foundation

CPR with rescue breaths

If you’ve been trained in CPR, including rescue breaths, and feel confident using your skills, you should give chest compressions with rescue breaths. If you are not completely confident, attempt hands-only CPR instead (see above).

 

Adults

  • Place the heel of your hand on the centre of the person's chest, then place the other hand on top and press down by 5–6cm at a steady rate, at approximately 100 compressions per minute.
  • After every 30 chest compressions, give two breaths.
  • Tilt the casualty's head gently and lift the chin up with two fingers. Pinch the person’s nose. Seal your mouth over their mouth and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth. Check that their chest rises. Give two rescue breaths.
  • Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.

Children over one year old

  • Open the child's airway by placing one hand on the child’s forehead and gently tilting their head back and lifting the chin. Remove any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose.
  • Pinch their nose. Seal your mouth over their mouth and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth, checking that their chest rises. Give five initial rescue breaths.
  • Place the heel of your hand on the centre of their chest and press down by at least one-third of the depth of the chest. Use two hands if you can't press down hard enough with one.
  • After every 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute, give two breaths.
  • Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.

Babies under one year old

  • Open the baby's airway by placing one hand on their forehead and gently tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Remove any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose.
  • Place your mouth over the mouth and nose of the infant and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth, checking that their chest rises. Give five initial rescue breaths.
  • Place two fingers in the middle of the chest and press down by one-third of the depth of the chest. Use the heel of one hand if you cannot press deep enough with two fingers.
  • After 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute, give two breaths.
  • Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.

 

Thinking of volunteering?

Whether you are interested in joining as a Responder, helping raise awareness of our work or fundraising, or you simply want to learn more then please contact us.

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